What is CPR?
It is the artificial method of circulating blood and oxygen through a body and attempting to keep the brain
alive. CPR does work. When initiated within four minutes, the survival rate
is 43 percent. When initiated within four to eight minutes, the survival
rate is ten percent.
Why Learn CPR?
- One in seven people will have the opportunity to use CPR in their
- More than 650,000 people die annually from heart attack in the
United States each year.
- More than 350,000 die before reaching the hospital.
- When the brain starts to go four to six minutes without oxygen,
brain damage/death begins.
- On the average, it takes the Phoenix Fire Department about four
minutes to respond to the scene of an incident.
- When CPR is needed, the Phoenix Fire Department is the first to
initiate it 85 percent of the time.
- In the United States, there are 500,000 strokes a year.
- In the United States, there are 6,000 drowning incidents a year and
3,100 incidents of airway obstructions a year.
Factors that cannot be changed:
- Heredity - cannot change your genetic background
- Sex - women have lower incidents of heart attack
- Race - Blacks have a 45 percent greater chance of high blood
- Age - risks increase with age, however, one in four deaths occur
under age 65.
Factors that can be changed:
- Smoking one pack a day increases heart attack rate two times over a
nonsmoker and stroke rate five times over a nonsmoker.
- Hypertension - (high blood pressure) is a major risk factor but with
no specific symptoms. One in three adults or 58,000 Americans have high
blood pressure controlled by diet, exercise and medications.
- Diet - high fat, high cholesterol foods cause plaque to collect on
artery walls constricting blood flow.
- Obesity - obese middle aged men have three times greater risk of
- Lack of exercise - regular aerobics exercise at least three times a
- Stress - A Type A personality, with a sense of urgency, drive and
competitiveness, has a greater risk.
Signs and Symptoms of Heart Attack
- Chest pain - can be an uncomfortable pressure, tightness or feeling
of indigestion, heavy squeezing pain like a weight on the chest, can
radiate to left arm and neck
- Shortness of breath
- Pale, sweaty cold skin
- May have no signs or symptoms (silent Myocardial infarction)
Actions for survival
- Recognize signals
- Stop activity, rest, lay down
- If pain lasts more than two minutes, call for help
- Patient's having early signs often deny having a heart attack
- Be prepared to do CPR, if alone do CPR for one minute, then call
Four reasons to stop CPR
- Patient is revived
- You are relieved by another trained individual
- Become exhausted
- Doctor is present and pronounces death
- Avoid smoking
- Health diet (fiber, fruits, vegetables, avoid junk foods)
- Less TV, more exercise
- Know and control blood pressure and cholesterol level
- The lungs function is to exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen.
- Room air is 21 percent oxygen, exhaled air is 16 percent oxygen. All
body organs and cells need oxygen to live.
- During CPR, exhalation is due to normal relaxation of the chest.
- The heart is the size of your fist with two separate halves (left
and right heart). The right heart receives blood from the body and pumps
it through the lungs back to the left heart. The left heart pumps fresh
oxygenated blood to all body parts.
- The heart beats 60-100 times a minute, 100,000 times a day and pumps
five quarts of blood a minute or 1,800 gallons a day. Ninety percent of
the time, CPR will be done on a family member or close friend.
- People do vomit and ribs do crack sometimes during CPR.
- Never do blind finger sweeps in the mouth on anyone.
- The victim should lie on a flat, hard surface.
- If you are alone, do CPR for one minute, then call 9-1-1.